# Diversion

Diversions are used to divide an inflow into two outflows according to a distribution rule. This can be used to model structures that withdraw water from rivers for water supply or irrigation purposes, branches in canals, diversions at the inlet or outlet of reservoirs, stormwater overflows, etc.

Four approaches are possible for defining the distribution rule.

## Threshold Value (Option 1)

In this case the second outflow only becomes active if the inflow exceeds the threshold of `Qcrit`

. In the threshold value approach, the 2nd outlet (e.g. stormwater overflow) is only activated once a critical inflow `Qcrit`

is exceeded, causing the throttled outflow to back up, reaching the overflow threshold. Since in reality a perfect division of the outflows after reaching the threshold value is usually never achieved, a diversion coefficient can also be specified in order to better represent actual conditions.

It is defined as: [math]\displaystyle{ \mbox{diversion coefficient}= \frac{Q_{in}(Q_{out}=5 \cdot Q_{crit})}{Q_{crit}} }[/math]

## Percentage Distribution (Option 2)

With this approach, the inflow is split into two outflows `Qout1`

and `Qout2`

according to a fixed percentage ratio.

## Function (Option 3)

A relationship determined using hydraulic calculations or derived from operating rules between the discharge `Qout1`

and the inflow can be specified in the form of a function. The second outlet `Qab2`

will then output the remaining discharge.

## Rules (Option 4)

Either of the two outlets can be controlled by scaling a value with a system state, optionally combined with a daily, weekly and/or annual pattern. The other outlet will then output the remaining discharge.